Are marijuana compounds more effective in relieving pain than opioids?
In the face of chronic pain diseases, most of the traditional treatment methods use opioids. The pharmacological effects of opioid drugs are the mental effects of morphine, including analgesia and sedation, through the binding of specific molecular receptor "opioid receptor" in the nervous system. In medical practice, the opioids represented by fentanyl have been the first choice in anesthesia and pain treatment since it was discovered.
Unfortunately, opioid drugs induce addiction and have strong side effects. The abuse of opioids has become an unavoidable social problem. The U.S. Department of health and human services points out that the United States is in an unprecedented wave of opioid abuse. From 1999 to 2014, the number of deaths due to the abuse of opioid prescription drugs reached 165000, and the annual economic loss was about 55 billion US dollars.
In order to solve this problem, researchers began to look for safer and more effective analgesic methods. According to the research of Guelph University in Canada, THC and CBD are not the only compounds with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in marijuana, and the cannabinoid with the greatest analgesic effect may be flavonoids.
The researchers found that cannflavin A and cannflavin B, two specific flavonoids from marijuana, had 30 times more anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects than aspirin, the most common over-the-counter opioid analgesic.
Professor of molecular and cell biology of Guelph university has determined the biosynthesis pathway of flavonoid A and B. this component can effectively target at the initiation of inflammation, stimulate cells to resist inflammation, reduce cell damage and death and deterioration due to inflammatory stimulation, stop inflammation at the source, reduce pain of patients, and have a protective mechanism for nerve cells, without causing two No side effects.
Flavonoid A and B can alleviate the adverse stimulation to the kidney, stomach and liver of patients in analgesic drugs, which is safer and more effective. Currently, anahit international, a medical marijuana company, has been granted the patent and started to explore the production of commercial analgesic products.
Cannabinoid can replace antibiotics, the effect is better?
In China, the use rate of antibiotics in patients is as high as 70%, which is twice as much as that in European and American countries, but only 20% of patients need antibiotics. Overuse of antibiotics has become a common phenomenon in the process of disease treatment in China.
There are four main mechanisms of bactericidal action of antibiotics, namely, inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis, interaction with cell membrane, interference of protein synthesis and inhibition of nucleic acid replication and transcription. For patients, it is easy to cause allergic reaction, toxic reaction, idiosyncratic reaction, double infection and so on.
Recently, a new study published in the Journal of infectious diseases of the American Chemical Society shows that cannabinoid CBG can defeat MRSA, an infectious disease that fails to respond to traditional antibiotics.
Researchers at McMaster University in Canada said that cannabinoid CBG from cannabis has obvious antibacterial properties and has shown that it can defeat MRSA of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Eric brown, chief research author and professor of Biochemistry and biomedical sciences at McMaster, said: "in this study, we investigated 18 commercially available cannabinoids, all of which showed antibiotic activity, of which the most concern was a non psychoactive cannabinoid CBG. In this study, the researchers managed to use CBG to cure MRSA infected mice, and CBG was also proved to be very effective in the treatment of pathogenic bacteria, which also showed that cannabinoid has real therapeutic potential as an antibiotic
Can marijuana help you sleep better than sleeping pills?
Many people will suffer from insomnia. At present, sedative hypnotics (including barbiturates, benzodiazepines and atypical benzodiazepines), antidepressants, antihistamines (rarely used for hypnosis) and traditional Chinese medicine are commonly used to treat insomnia. However, many people with insomnia are very clear that long-term use of sleeping drugs will cause easy rebound, difficult withdrawal, increased risk of dementia, induced heart disease and other side effects.
Step Hill labs research shows that the aging hemp plant has the effect of treating insomnia because it contains high content of cannabinoid CBN, and the effect of 2.5-5mg CBN is equivalent to that of 5-10mg diazepam (sleeping pills), which can replace diazepam drugs in the treatment of insomnia.
Medical marijuana company zelira Therapeutics conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover design trial of zlt-101 (cannabinoid drug) in patients with insomnia. A total of 24 patients with chronic insomnia, aged from 25 to 70 years, were enrolled in the study. Patients were required to take ztl-101 and placebo for 2 weeks respectively. At the beginning of administration, each patient could receive a single dose (0.5ml / total cannabinoid 11.5mg) or double dose (1ml) according to their symptoms/ Total cannabinoid 23 mg) was administered sublingually.
Professor Peter Eastwood, lead researcher of the study and director of the sleep science center at the University of Western Australia, commented: "this study represents the assessment of the therapeutic potential of medicinal marijuana in the treatment of chronic insomnia. It is the most rigorous clinical trial ever conducted and the first clinical trial to use insomnia severity index to measure the efficacy of medicinal marijuana in treating insomnia symptoms. Zlt-101 treatment in ISI score has been significantly improved, no adverse reactions, is safe and reliable. These results suggest that marijuana has the potential to become a new treatment for insomnia
Can marijuana replace conventional antidepressants?
In the treatment of depression and anxiety of mental illness, antidepressants are developing rapidly, and their varieties are increasing day by day. According to their chemical structure, they can be divided into two kinds of heterocyclic antidepressants: tricyclic and tetracyclic. But the classic antidepressants, whose onset is delayed (several weeks), are only effective in some patients.
In recent years, it has been found that low-dose ketamine can rapidly and persistently resist depression, but it is still ineffective for more than 1 / 3 of patients. Today's first-line anti anxiety drugs are also delayed (several weeks), anti anxiety effect is relatively weak, there are significant adverse reactions. At the same time, the long-term use of benzodiazepine antianxiety drugs can also bring serious adverse effects to patients.
According to researchers at the University of buffalo, cannabinoid in marijuana is likely to become a new treatment for depression, with fewer side effects and interactions than current medical standards.
In this study, we conducted a systematic study on the effect and mechanism of EB produced by brain cells on depression and anxiety in rats using marijuana
(1) 2-AG hydrolase inhibitor (increasing brain 2-AG level) can achieve rapid and lasting antidepressant effect, and its curative effect is better than ketamine, mainly through the effect of inhibitory GABAergic synaptic lysis inhibitor in brain;
(2) AEA hydrolase inhibitors can achieve rapid and lasting anti anxiety effect, and the degree of adverse reactions is low, mainly through the action of CB1 receptor on astrocytes.
"These preclinical studies will lay a solid foundation for the development of new antidepressant and anxiety drugs," said Dr. Samir Haj dahmane, senior research scientist at the Institute of addiction, University of buffalo